Games in Economic Development

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Only four of the studios surveyed are solo operations, though most of them rely on contractors for graphic design, music and other support services.

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While none of the solo studios reported plans to take on employees over the next 12 months, eight of the other 10 will be hiring during that period. The age of studios ranged from one year to 27 years, with the average age being 9 years old. In total, the studios have produced more than games.

Consoles and PCs tied as the leading game platform nine studios each , followed by mobile 8 studios studios and web six studios. These are the types of attributes that have been driving the Capital Region up on national rankings. For example, U. The studio was founded in by two brothers in high school, Karthik and Guha Bala, and is currently based in the Albany suburb of Menands. Like any creative content production company, we continue to evolve along with our industry.

As technologies and the general business of entertainment rapidly morphs and changes, so must we. Although animation is our bread and butter, we are known globally for project ideation, polished art, as well as VFX work for features and high-end commercials.

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Please tell us about current projects that you find particularly exciting. Our studio continues to do projects for all kinds of clients in the commercial, film, tv, and interactive space, and develop 2D and 3D animated projects. Piggle Wiggle books. Austin has changed so much in the last ten years that parts of our city are almost unrecognizable. However, the spirit of Austin has not changed.

It is still a town full of 'triple-threats', creative people who have many talents and interests, who love collaborating on projects at our studio. Thankfully, there is still a sense of openness and energy in building partnerships. We've also seen a huge influx of talented people from areas such as LA, New York and abroad who bring great experience and vision. The ratio of coaches to sport participants is very low since most coaches cannot be waged under satisfactory conditions and the number of voluntary workers is not big enough to compensate for the coach shortage.

The latter sometimes affects even high level sport. High level athletes and sport participants cannot benefit from medical care to the same extent as in developed economies. In the 16 LDCs surveyed by UNESCO, 10 have an organized system of sporting medical care, but 8 have no specialized sporting doctors, and only 4 countries have both specialized doctors and medical-sporting centres.

Few domestic money in sport The government is the main sponsor and patron of sport activity in many developing countries, namely in LDCs Kidane In the 's and the 's, the Ministries for Education and Health were still financing enough physical education to leave it with a good room in school programmes.

School sport competitions were sometimes national events. But with the demographic expansion and the struggle against illiteracy, the number of pupils and students has dramatically increased in developing countries and has exhausted all the budgetary capacities needed for financing sport practice at school and elsewhere. In India the government expenditure on sports was of 0.

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  • In the face of a trade-off between literacy and physical education, no Ministry of Education has privileged the latter against the former. When new Ministries for Sports have been introduced in the governments of developing countries, they have neither been ranked among top priorities nor benefited from a substantial level of subsidies. In , its share in the overall state budget was 1. The finance flowing from the municipalities' budgets into sport activities has increased from million dinars in to million dinars in , but its share in the overall municipalities' budgets has decreased from 2.

    The aim was to appeal to every capable and interested Nigerian to pay at least one naira to this find Eziakor, Nwali This sort of call to the population is hardly successful in countries where the average income is not enough for current food. The money flowing from consumers participants into sport activity is practically nothing.

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    How pay a sport shoes par when its price is over the average monthly wage in the country? How and why buy a brand-named sport shirt when it costs more than a national costume? Finally, those national sports federations that want to be internationally recognized, first must be legally established and confirmed by the government and, then, they must pay their annual membership fee to the international federations, namely if the country intends to participate to international sport events.

    In , the Council for African Sports was complaining that only 10 out of 50 member countries were able to pay their subscription fee, so that the CSA was running a deficit every year.

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    Few sport facilities and equipments There is no comprehensive data available about sport facilities, stadia, playgrounds and games equipement in India. Even in the higher educational sector, the Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development has stated in that in most universities and colleges, games and sports have been neglected areas Bhatty In , Tunisia had only 7 sporting halls; in they were 50; the number of football lawns was 25, and private sporting halls had been built from to Khiari In most Tunisian stadiums, three-quarters of all the seats are not roofed over and one third of the attendance has no seat.

    In Nigeria, sport facilities are practically non existent due to a lack of finance caused by economic underdevelopment. In the 16 LDCs covered in the UNESCO study, the number of sport facilities in is the following: football pitches average: 71 per country , volleyball pitches 31 , basketball pitches 30 , handball pitches 19 , athletics tracks 13 , 51 swimming pools 3 and 14 gymnasiums 1. No baseball pitch, no boxing ring, no cycling track, no horse-driving area, no hockey rink, no tatami, no tennis court, no harbour for sailing are found in these countries.

    In those countries where sports facilities are present, they are offered to the practice of very numerous potential participants - inhabitants Table 6 : on average in the 16 LDCs, there is one athletics track per , inhabitants, one football pitch per , inhabitants, one small pitch basketball, volleyball, handball per , inhabitants, one swimming pool per 2,, inhabitants and one gymnasium per 8,, inhabitants. Since sports facilities are so rare, we could have expected a strong effort for their maintenance. In fact, it is quite the contrary: sport facilities often are not maintained.

    The maintenance of sport facilities incurs financial costs, so that the authorities reduce their use to a few exceptional events which in turn diminishes the number of local sport competitions and thus the sporting activity of clubs and sports federations, and finally decreases the number of trainings and sport participants. Sport facilities being consequently very much under-utilized, their maintenance is felt neither useful nor necessary.

    Usually, only the capital of the country is endowed with such facilities that are used for sport events and never for regular sport training. Most "national" domestic sport events are organized in the capitals of LDCs simply because, in each country, the capital is the only one city endowed with accurate and well-maintained sport facilities Souchaud a. A UNESCO suggestion Souchaud c , for developing sport for all in developing countries, in particular in small nation-states and island countries, is to favour the development of simpler sport areas not arenas , instead of sophisticated sport facilities.

    For instance, it is suggested to integrate a football pitch within an athletics track or, the other way round, to picture the track on the football pitch. Some experiences of this kind have been successfully achieved in Comoros, Madagascar and Rwanda. In the same vein, swimming pools could be fitted out into the sea, close to the sea shore at a cheap cost. The prestigious Maracana stadium in Rio de Janeiro initially had a welcoming capacity of , spectators, when it was brand new in the 's.

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    Today, the stadium is no longer water-proof. In , a wall protecting the upper gallery collapsed during the final of the national championship Flamengo-Botafogo : four spectators died and were injured. Now, the Maracana is still waiting for an overall restoration and the access to its upper gallery is limited; so that the capacity is reduced to , spectators.

    All these troubles are ascribed to the Suderj, the public agency in charge of the stadium management, which is short of the necessary funds to proceed to any investment. The Suderj is looking for the privatization of Maracana through selling its assets. Fewer world-level sport performances than in developed countries In poor developing countries, talented sport participants to Olympics have a few chance to compete successfully with the participants from rich developed countries insofar as they cannot afford the same financial and material means for training, preparation and so on.

    At Sydney Olympics, Africa was represented in women basketball by Senegal and in men basketball by Angola with no hope of winning since the best African performances so far were the ones of Egypt the 9th rank in men basketball at the Olympics and Zare the 12th rank in women basketball at Atlanta games, If we take a more systematic view of sport performances obtained by developing countries in world-level competitions, again we observe that economic underdevelopment is an hindrance to world sporting performances of many countries.

    The overall number of countries that have participated to the Olympics increased from in Los Angeles up to in Seoul , in Barcelona , in Atlanta , and in Sydney , while the number of distributed gold medals has grown from in to in The former increase is basically due to the growing number of developing including the former Soviet Union countries joining the Olympics.

    In other words, practically all developing countries are following Coubertin's incitement to participate even though it is at a high cost to many of them. The problem is that the "productivity" to phrase it like Praicheux, of an investment in the participation to Olympics is not very high, on average, for most developing countries. The study by Elmandjra also demonstrates that only 21 developing countries had got at least one medal, and only 7 countries had obtained at least one of the 28 gold medals distributed to Third World countries of which 15 for China and 6 for South Korea.

    The other gold medals had been won in Los Angeles by 26 developed countries which had got of the overall number of distributed medals. When ranked according to the number of gold medals per million of inhabitants, the first developing country in Los Angeles Olympics was South Korea 12th rank, 0. The average ratio is of 0.

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    This shows that the performance of developing countries in terms of medals has markedly decreased, compared to Los Angeles Athletics and boxing are the two sports for which the distribution of medals usually is less uneven for Third World countries, namely in Barcelona However, developing countries succeed more in sports without technical requirements, i. For a number of sports horse riding, gymnastics, cano-kayak, rowing, cycling, etc. The so-called "North-South" gap is nearly as much obvious for Olympics' sporting performances as it is for economic development.

    This evidence is again confirmed in Atlanta and Sydney Table 7. Sydney Olympics both widen the gap between developed and developing countries, and concentrate the medals on a fewer Third World countries, primarily the EMCs. The concentration of medals on a few developing countries is of course quite lower as compared to developed countries. For Sydney Olympics, we calculate a first ratio dividing the number of medals by the number of countries having gathered them. The last result namely without China in the LDCs shows that the more a participating country is developed the higher number of medals it wins; this applies to the gap between developed and developing countries as well as within developing countries.

    Not only "a nation cannot just suddenly become a sporting nation" Chesnais , but it will take decades for a developing country to join the group of major medal winners insofar as sporting performances seem to be correlated with the level of economic development.

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