The Reign of Manuel II Palaeologus in Thessalonica, 1382-1387 (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 150)

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Thessalonica between and as the city was in the hands of the Zealots who were nominally anti-Cantacuzene and would not have placed his portrait on the coinage. In fact there seems little doubt that there was a cessation of minting under the Zealot rule.

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For this and other reasons, Protonotarios postulates that all the gold and silver coins struck at Constantinople showing Andronicus III with John V and Anna of Savoy were in fact issued in Andronicus Ill's lifetime, so that the appearance of John V on his father's coins should not provoke comment. Types 2, 3, and remain as issues of Andronicus III. Thus the hoard now commences with a single issue of Michael VIII and Andronicus II, continues with four types of Andronicus II and slowly swells to a peak with the bulk of the issues belonging to Andronicus III, including four of his last type with John V, and ends with one or two specimens of the first issue of John V with his mother.

The reason for the closure of the hoard at this point is not hard to seek — the Zealot revolt of The various overstrikes do not disturb the new arrangement. Types 2 and 3 are overstruck on coins of Andronicus II and Michael IX ; type 13 is overstruck possibly on types 3 and 4? Longuet did note that one specimen of type 11 was overstruck on type Fortunately he illustrated all four specimens of type 11 and prolonged scrutiny of them does not reveal any features of type Longuet also noted that type 4 was very similar to a coin of Michael Shishman As it will not be doubted that the Bulgarians copied the Byzantine coinage and not vice- versa, it is much more reasonable to have the prototype type 4 moved back a reign, thus allowing a longer period for the transmission of the design.

Description of Pella hoard. Emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros, riding on horseback. Demetrius, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion, riding on. Weight 1. Note The feature on the right-hand side of the reverse seems to be. The obverse is similar to Nos. A second specimen is in. Full length figures of emperor, left, and empress, right; between them, a star descending from a cloud above, Emperor and empress wear stemma, divitision and loros, and holding sceptres in right and left hands respectively; star in lower centre field; floral ornaments to left and right.

Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, standing, wearing tunic, breastplate and sagion; holds spear in right hand and shield in left; star in right field; floral ornaments to right and left. Weight a. Note This type is not dissimilar in general design to a copper coin found in the excavations at Olynthus Olynthus Plate IX, 4A and 4B. Full length figure of empress standing, wearing stemma, divitision and loros, holding in right hand sceptre cruciger, and in left, a model of city with towers; to left, g; to right g; above right, Manus Dei descending from cloud.

Full length figure of John V, wearing stemma, divitision and loros, holding in right hand, labarum headed sceptre, and in left, anexi- kakia; to left, g, and star; to right, two stars. Plate IX, 5.


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Weight 2. Plate IX, 6. Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, labarum headed sceptre, and in left, anexikakia; in left field, g ; in right field, two stars and g ; above right, Manus Dei appearing from cloud. Plate IX, 7. Full length figure of empress, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, a model of city with towers, and in left, sceptre; in left field, two?

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Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, sceptre cruciger, and in left, anexikakia; in left field, g ; above right, Manus Dei appearing from cloud. Plate IX, 8. Full length figure of empress, wearing stemma, divitision and. Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and.

The earliest and most worn coin in the hoard is that depicting the emperor on horseback pi. IX, 1. The obverse is so similar to types 7 and 8 in the "Salonica" hoard pi. The subsequent types are not only more freshly preserved but of a quite different form and style. All show an emperor and empress — together on type 2 pi. IX, 4 and on opposite sides of the coins on the subsequent five issues pi. IX, The overall style is cruder than on the earlier coins, with features of the emperor seemingly copied from Venetian grossi of the first half of the fourteenth century, or perhaps from Serbian silver coins of the same period.

The emperor has a small short beard, down- turned moustache and a stemma in the form of a small round skull cap kamelaukion instead of the wide flat crown of the earlier Pala- eologan period. These features seem to indicate that a gap in production rather than a gradual development occured in the coinage.

The interesting feature of types is that the empress is the senior of the two figures. While the emperor is only identified by the Palaeologan "badge", the empress has the letter A identifying her on four of the types, and also holds a model of the city of Thessalonica, an attribute which had always been the particular preserve of the city's rulers since Theodore Comnenus-Ducas.


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  • These five types must postdate type 2 where the emperor and empress stand side by side, as types 5 and 7 are overstruck on type 2. The history of Thessalonica provides the answers which allow us to attribute the coins of the "Pella" hoard. The change in style represents the hiatus caused by the Zealot revolt, for it is almost certain that there were no coins struck in Thessalonica between and It is hard to escape the supposition that the A identifies the empress, standing perhaps both for Anna and Augusta or Autokratorissa, while the emperor John V is anonymous as the identity of the sole ruler of the empire would not have been in doubt.

    Thus the period of issue for types should be between December and Anna's death in Type 2 must therefore predate December but postdate the summer of when John VI despatched Anna to Thessalonica.

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    To the authors it seems likely that this type must have been issued between August and January when Anna of Savoy and her son reigned together in Thessalonica. These are listed below. Type D has a similar figure of Anna on the obverse but two nimbate figures on the reverse.

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    The final type E is somewhat dissimilar in style and content but linked to the others in having an empress on one side and an emperor on the other. It is not certain that this coin represents Anna of Savoy and John V but the type is included here for the sake of completeness. Type A. Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, sceptre cruciger, and in left, anexakakia; above right, Manus Dei appearing from cloud.

    Plate IX, Type B. Full length figure of empress, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, a model of a city with towers, and in left, sceptre; a star? Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, labarum headed sceptre, and in left, anexikakia; g in left field; two stars in right field. The flan of this coin is rather small and has been clipped, so that parts of the design may be missing. Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, sceptre cruciger, and in left, anexikakia; above right, Manus Dei appearing from clouds.

    Type D. Two standing nimbate figures; both hold a spear in their right hands? Type E. Full length figure of emperor facing on left, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; holding in right hand, sceptre.

    G. T. Dennis, The reign of Manuel II Palaeologus in Thessalonica ( ). - Persée

    On right, full length nimbate figure standing facing left, wearing military costume St. Full length figure of empress, wearing stemma, divitision and loros; standing beneath an arched canopy; stars in inner field. Plate IX, 13 and General accounts of these events are given by G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State Oxford, , pp. John Cantacuzenus, Historiae, ed. Schopen, III Bonn, , pp. Cantacuzenus, III, pp. Nikephoros Gregoras, Byzantina Historia, ed. Schopen, II Bonn, , pp. Texte, traduction et commentaire. Nicol, op. Cantacuzenus, III, p.

    Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, I, ed. Trapp Vienna, , no. Gregoras, III Bonn, , pp. These events are analysed by Schreiner.

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    Gregoras, III, p. Chalcidice in this context must mean not the peninsula of Chalcidice in Macedonia but the district of Thrace which is elsewhere so called by Cantacuzene, of which Xanthe, Komotine and Gratianoupolis were among the principal towns. Byzance el VOccident Paris, , p.

    Greek text with exhaustive commentary in A. Gregoras, III, pp.